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彭博商業周刊 || 健康隱患導致歐洲的 5G 基站建設放緩

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導讀** **

感謝思維導圖作者:
Li Xia, 女, 我視英語為初戀,英語瞧我像備胎

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翻譯

Health Scares Slow the Rollout of 5G Cell Towers in Europe

健康隱患導致歐洲的 5G 基站建設放緩

英文部分選自 Bloomberg Businessweek20200120 期

彭博商業周刊 || 健康隱患導致歐洲的 5G 基站建設放緩

Health Scares Slow the Rollout of 5G Cell Towers in Europe

健康隱患導致歐洲的 5G 基站建設放緩

The next-generation wireless technology transmits more energy, but there’s no evidence of harmful effects.

新一代無線技術將傳輸更多能量,但對健康的不利影響尚無定論。

By Thomas Seal and Albertina Torsoli

文 / 托馬斯·希爾和阿爾貝蒂娜·托索利

In the small Alpine town of Wohlen, a fierce backlash against the latest generation of mobile phone technology is under way. The Swiss municipality won't allow Sunrise Communications AG or other phone companies to build masts to broadcast 5G, citing concerns about health risks from the towers' electromagnetic radiation. Activist group Frequencia, which calls for limits on 5G's rollout in part because of fears about cancer risks, attracted hundreds of people to a mass protest outside the parliament in Bern in September.

在阿爾卑斯的小鎮沃倫 , 一場針對最新一代移動電話技術的激烈對抗正在上演。由於擔憂基站的電磁輻射會對健康產生不利影響,瑞士當局沒有允許 Sunrise 等電信公司建造 5G 基站。瑞士環境和消費者組織 Frequencia 擔心 5G 建設提高癌症風險,呼籲放緩 5G 建設步伐。去年 9 月該組織在伯爾尼的國會大廈外舉行了大規模抗議活動,吸引了數百人參加。

Reticence in Wohlen and other parts of Switzerland, including Geneva, has created an obstacle to Sunrise's plans to provide the latest services. “All this stuff has delayed my rollout vs. my own company plan,” says Olaf Swantee, who resigned as chief executive officer on Jan. 3 in the wake of a failed deal to buy a cable business. He says Sunrise was able to build only half the number of 5G sites he'd wanted to complete by the end of 2019.

沃倫、日內瓦及瑞士其他地區諱莫如深的態度阻礙了 Sunrise 推出最新服務的進程。 Sunrise 前首席執行官奧拉夫·斯旺迪 (Olaf Swantee) 因未能收購電纜業務而於 1 月 3 日辭職。斯旺迪稱 “這種種因素導致我的 5G 建設步伐遠遠滯後於我制定的公司計劃”,並表示到 2019 年底,Sunrise 只可能完成既定的 5G 基站目標的一半。

With 5G, or fifth-generation, wireless technology, you get data speeds as much as 100 times faster than what's available with 4G, the current standard. That means faster downloads, boosting the potential of automated cars and factories and helping realize the promise of the internet of things. For phone carriers, 5G offers a chance to bolster revenue by enabling a range of new commercial services; governments view it as a path to business opportunities.

得益於 5G,即第五代無線網技術的發展,數據傳播速率將會在現有 4G 速率上提高 100 倍。這意味著下載速率更快,無人汽車開發加速,工廠效率提高,物聯網的願景也能更快實現。對於手機運營商而言,5G 將開闢一條通過提供一系列新型商業服務獲得創收的道路。政府將這視為經濟創收致富新路。

彭博商業周刊 || 健康隱患導致歐洲的 5G 基站建設放緩But to realize those benefits, carriers must add 5G equipment to existing mobile masts, so they can emit more powerful signals. On the older standards, towers broadcast wireless signals far and wide, hitting any and all devices in their range at low intensity. Masts that are 5G-enabled use a high-energy process known as beamforming to transmit only to devices that can read the signals.

但是要實現這些好處,運營商就得在現有基站上增加 5G 設備以便發射更強的信號。按照以往的標準,發射塔可以遠距離以低強度發射無線信號到範圍內的所有設備。 5G 改造後的基站將會利用波束成形的高能量傳輸信號,但只有可讀取該信號的設備才能接收。

The increased energy intensity has sparked health concerns from activists. Matthias von Herrmann, a spokesman for the Stuttgart-based environmental group Diagnose:Funk, which has been critical of the 5G build-out, says the additional radiation raises the risk of cancer, infertility , and other serious ailments. He says his group gets about two or three requests a week from people across Germany for advice on building opposition to 5G. The mobile phone industry is facing “a level of protest they clearly hadn't expected,” von Herrmann says. “It's not about denying people the use of mobile phones. But we can't just expose people to radiation without running the necessary checks.”

信號的能量強度增加引起了部分激進主義者對健康問題的擔心。總部位於斯圖加特的環保組織“Diagnose:Funk”的發言人馬蒂亞斯·馮·赫爾曼(Matthias von Herrmann)對 5G 的發展提出質疑。他表示,輻射強度的提升增加了罹患癌症、不孕不育以及其他嚴重疾病的風險。他同時表示其團隊每週都會收到兩到三封諮詢信,就反對 5G 建設向他們尋求建議。馮·赫爾曼表示,手機行業正面臨“程度令人始料未及的抗議”,但他同時指出“這些抗議倒不是反對人們使用手機,而是反對在未充分核實之前就使人們暴露在電磁輻射的危險環境之中”。

Protests have percolated from Berlin to Bristol, England, despite little scientific backup from major government health bodies. One study, from the US National Toxicology Program, showed rats exposed to very high levels of electromagnetic radiation developed tumors. But the Food and Drug Administration says weaknesses in that research, including a failure to establish a clear relationship between radiation doses and cancers, mean it shouldn't inform public-health guidelines. The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, which works with the World Health Organization on research and policy, agrees with the FDA. “There's no reason to be concerned” about the potential for 5G to raise the risk of cancer or other ailments, says commission Chairman Eric van Rongen, a radiobiologist.

儘管缺乏政府認可的衛生機構提供的科學依據,抗議活動仍然從柏林蔓延到英國布里斯托爾。美國國家毒理學計劃的一項研究表明,在極高水平的電磁輻射中,實驗鼠體內會長腫瘤。但美國食品藥品監督管理局(FDA)指出了這項研究的不足之處——該實驗並未表明輻射量和癌症之間的明確的關聯性,所以它不應該作為公眾健康指南。與世界衛生組織共同研究出策的國際非電離輻射防護委員會支持 FDA 的言論。其主席——放射生物學家埃里克·範·榮恩(Eric van Rongen)說“沒必要擔心”5G 增加癌症或其他疾病的潛在風險。

彭博商業周刊 || 健康隱患導致歐洲的 5G 基站建設放緩Despite “a lot of noise in social media” on the possibility of 5G damaging health, US carriers have been largely unaffected, says Jack Rowley, a senior research director on electromagnetic radiation at GSMA, the international lobbying group for the mobile communications industry. Opponents in locales such as Mill Valley, Calif., which has attempted to block the erection of 5G towers, face a tough adversary: Ajit Pai, head of the US Federal Communications Commission. Pai, who sees 5G as a national priority, has streamlined antenna approval processes. He's said it's illegal for local governments to set a moratorium on telecom infrastructure.

全球移動通信系統協會(GSMA) 是移動通信行業的國際遊說團體,其電磁輻射研究部高級主管傑克·羅利(Jake Rowley) 稱,儘管社交媒體當中有很多質疑5G 對健康產生危害的聲音,但大多數美國運營商並未因此受到影響。加州米爾谷等地欲阻止建造 5G 基站反對者要面對一個強硬的對手——美國聯邦通信委員會 (U.S. federal communications industry) 主任阿吉特·白 (Ajit Pai)。白把 5G 視作國家當下的發展要務,他精簡了天線核准程序,並表示地方政府暫停電信基建的行為是違法的。

It's a different story in parts of Europe. In Belgium, regional governments have set strict limits on mast emissions that will make any 5G rollout there difficult for now, says Michael Trabbia, CEO of mobile operator Orange Belgium. A 2018 study by the country's communications regulator said setting limits on the amount of energy a telecom mast can use is necessary to “protect the public against the effects that may arise as a consequence of exposure to electromagnetic fields.”

但在歐洲,5G 的建設情況又是全然不同的景象。比利時移動運營商 Orange Belgium 的首席執行官邁克爾·特拉比亞 (Michael Trabbia) 認為,地方政府已經對基站的發射功率有嚴格的限制,當前來說極大地增加了 5G 推出的難度。比利時通信監管部門在 2018 年作的一份研究中指出,限制基站的能量強度對於“保護公眾免受暴露於電磁場的影響”是十分必要的。

Europe's biggest carrier, Deutsche Telekom AG, has also had to modify its 5G program in areas where there's been pushback. In January 2019 residents of the small Bavarian district of Graswang protested the company's plans to build a 100-foot mast near their homes in part because of concerns about health risks. Deutsche Telekom has agreed to build the tower at a site that's farther away.

歐洲最大的電信運營商德國電信 (Deutsche Telekom AG) 同樣由於部分地區出現反抗而不得不更改了自己的 5G 項目。 2019 年 1 月,巴伐利亞州 Graswang 地區的居民,由於擔心健康問題而對電信公司在附近建造 100 英呎(約 30 米)高的發射塔的計劃表示了抗議。如今德國電信已同意將基站建在更遠一些的地點。

In England, local governments including that of Glastonbury, home of the well-known music festival, are threatening to frustrate mast applications on health grounds. The prospect of prolonged and expensive local planning disputes is causing some companies to consider avoiding problem areas in Britain. “That sort of time is not something that any part of the mobile industry can really afford, nor wants to spend its time and its money on, and we will focus on areas where there is a more supportive environment,” says Howard Jones, head of network communications at BT Group Plc.

在英格蘭,包括著名音樂節所在地格拉斯頓伯里在內的地方,當地政府都以健康為由威脅要停止基站的建造申請。由於地方規劃糾紛歷時長且代價高,許多公司紛紛考慮避開英國的棘手區域。霍華德·瓊斯(Howard Jones)是英國電信集團(BT Group Plc)的網絡通信主管,他說:“任何移動行業的公司都等不起,也不願意花費時間和金錢(在那些棘手的區域),我們將專注於持更加支持態度的區域。”

System operators aren't likely to quiet 5G opponents anytime soon, because collecting indisputable evidence of the technology's effect, or lack thereof, would require decades of observation across big populations. And the WHO's classification of mobile phone emissions as “possibly carcinogenic” still resonates with some critics—even though pickled vegetables and aloe vera fall under the same category.

系統運營商不太可能在短時間內讓 5G 反對者平息下來,原因在於收集有關該技術影響的確鑿證據需要在廣大人群中進行數十年的觀察。世界衛生組織將手機輻射定性為“可能致癌”至今仍讓一些手機的批評者產生共鳴——儘管醃製蔬菜和蘆薈也被歸進了“可能致癌”這個類別。

Former Sunrise CEO Swantee says Swiss officials could help wireless carriers by offering reassurance to citizens. So far, though, they've been “pretty much silent” on the topic, he says. “They should say, 'This is fake news. Telecoms are applying normal laws. Birds are not falling from the sky because of 5G.' ” —With Stefan Nicola and Leonard Kehnscherper

Sunrise 前首席執行官斯萬迪認為,瑞士官方可以通過消除公民的疑慮來幫助無線運營商。他說,到目前為止,官方對這個話題“十分沉默”。他表示“官方應該說‘這是假新聞。電信公司都是遵紀守法的。鳥兒也不會因為 5G 網絡就從天上掉下來。’”

Scientists and regulators say 5G technology poses little health risk. But that hasn’t stopped opponents in parts of Europe from slowing the telecom upgrade’s rollout.

科學家和監管機構表示,5G 技術給健康帶來的風險微乎其微。但是這尚未能阻止歐洲部分地區的反對者們放緩這一技術推進的步伐。

翻譯組:

Frances,英語專業,備考雅思

Jane Xia,英語專業,翻譯愛好者

Evelyn,女,MTIer,彭博商業周刊粉絲

Tina,MTIer 狂熱小軟件探索者 目前備考二口

校核組:

Hannah,英語教書匠,和喜歡的一切在一起

Lance,冒牌美少女,認識幾個字母的萬年烤鴨

Echo, 在東京學賣股票所以天天被逼著看財經新聞的 kinky 小女孩

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觀點 | 評論 | 思考

本期感想 Peiyun, 德留 BA 專業,文學時事愛好者 個人持續充實階段

話說這以每十年為一個週期的通信換代速度再加上達維多定律所講“先到者佔盡過半的資源”的理論,從1990 年的2G 到現在預計2020 年開始的5G(時間明顯提前),世界大小國都在絞盡腦汁地想如何贏得5G 爭奪戰: 從研究能被5G 帶起的AutoCar, 醫療遠程,大小社會drastic change 的等等技術; 到搶奪衛星軌道相應資源; 和現在的action- 建5G 基地站。這些舉動一方面擴張了群眾的信息面,但也無疑加進了 5G 正反面的討論。先從好處來看,以5G 技術應用最核心的智能機器人來說,信息傳播速度快到AI 能模擬出人腦的邏輯推理,並且在multiple capacity 上能達到同步計算(強烈建議大家去看圓桌跨越派:5G,歡迎來到未來https://w.url.cn/s/AwKDeif,這就使得遠程不僅能解決技術缺失的情況還能貯備知識並在一定程度上改良到更好以適應特殊案例。但這就引發瞭如果AI 快到能串改人類意識流的情況怎麼辦? 又再者信息推送模式更加強個人單方面的思維形成怎麼辦? 大部分工作消失怎麼辦?… 等等。但作為一名樂觀主義者,相信解決辦法總是比問題發展快,信息管控各國需指定嚴格規則,AI 引領群眾判斷問題的全面性,個網絡能開發出單獨想法相反的video feed,消失的工作能刺激創新行業的發展,比如人們不在局限於在市面上的工作需求,而是通過創業來找尋自我價值。最後回到文講的5G 建基站的健康隱患,了解知識本身是接受新知識的最初步驟。5G 發射出來的輻射強度是由頻道強度✖️頻率波長來決定的,而這兩個因素卻是對立增長的。安全問題是要注意,但是否誇大其詞還待時間驗證。造成這種“思維“固化又是否已經是AI 的副作用? 人類究竟是要屈服於第一直覺的便利感,還是願意有目的性地訓練邏輯思考呢 ?

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彭博商業周刊 || 健康隱患導致歐洲的 5G 基站建設放緩

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